Saturday, January 18, 2020

Academic Reading and Writing

CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Learning Unit 2: READING SKILLS By the end of this session, you should be able to: identify what the writer has stated literally (read the lines) infer what the writer has stated (read between the lines) apply ideas within the text to what you already know (read beyond the lines) A. Reading Academic Texts Academic texts are relatively formal in structure and style. They might be textbooks or just straightforward texts.To increase the amount of information that you can extract from a single reading of a section, chapter or article in an academic text, you need to use efficient academic reading strategies. Some of the skills which are essential in academic reading are skimming and scanning for specific information or details, making inferences based on what is stated and applying ideas with the text to what you already know. B. Identifying Specific Information To identify specific information, you should begin b y scanning the topic sentences (i. e. he sentence which makes the point of the paragraph and which is usually the first sentence of the paragraph). Locating the topic sentence helps you to stay focus on finding the needed information. Task 1 Read the following passage and provide the most appropriate answers for the corresponding questions. Social Influence 1 Of the many influences on human behaviour, social influences are the most constant. When we hear the term social influence, most of us think of attempts of someone to persuade us to change our actions or opinions. The television usually comes to mind.However, the major influence on people is people’s presence. Many of the most important forms of social influence are unintentional and the effects we humans have on one another occur due to the fact that we are in each other’s physical presence. In 1898, a psychologist named Triplett made an interesting study. In checking the speed records of bicycle racers, he notic ed that better speed records were obtained when cyclists raced against each other than when they raced against the clock. This observation led Triplett to perform another experiment. He asked children to turn a wheel as fast as possible for a certain period of time.Sometimes two children worked at the same time in the same room, each with his wheel; at other times, they worked alone. The results confirmed his theory that children worked faster in co-action, which is when another child doing the same thing was present. Therefore, the experiments proved that humans perform significantly better with the presence of another person when doing a task. 2 ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 48 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 3 Soon after Triplett’s experiments, it was discovered that the presence of a passive spectator was enough to improve one’s performance.This was discovered in an experiment on muscular effort by Meumann in 1910, who found that subjects lifted a weight faster whenever the psychologist was in the room. Later experiments have confirmed this audience effect that provides several contributions to humans. Firstly, it helps to motivate a person to perform better. Secondly, it drives a person to break the psychological barrier. This is apparent in sport competitions in which crowds have a great effect on athletes’ performance, and it is normally referred to as home-ground advantage. For example, footballers tend to win more matches hen playing in front of their own fans. It appears that co-action and audience effects in humans are caused by the individual’s cognitive concerns about competition and the evaluation of performance that others will make. We learn as we grow up that others praise or criticize, reward or punish our performances, and this raises our drive level when we perform in front of others. Thus, even the early studies of co-action found that if all elements of competition are removed, co-action effects are reduced or eliminated. Similarly, audience effects are a function of a person’s interpretation of how much he is being evaluated. adapted from Simon, 2010) 4 1. Based on the information provided in paragraph 1, what is the main influence in changing a person’s behaviour and views? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What does the underlined phrase â€Å"comes to mind† in paragraph 1 mean? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. According to the passage, what was the result of Triplett’s two co-action experiments in 1898? ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Briefly explain TWO (2) reasons that caused the existence of co-action and audience effects in humans. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 49 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING C. Making Inferences Writers often tell you more than they say directly. They give you hints or clues that help you â€Å"read between the lines†.Using these clues to give you a deeper understanding of your reading is called inferring. When you infer, you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the details suggest or imply (not stated). Task 2 Warming-Up: Try to infer the possible message of the following cartoons. Discuss the messages with your peers and explain why your message is acceptable. Possible message: ______________________________ ______________________________ Possible message: ______________________________ ______________________________ ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READ ING-SKILLS 50 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMASPBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Task 3 Making Inferences: Read the short excerpts taken from several academic articles and answer the questions given. Excerpt 1 During the recession of the mid-1980s, there was an increase in graduate unemployment in Malaysia. With the recovery of the economy towards the end of the 1980s, graduate unemployment was slightly reduced thanks to government’s effort to create more jobs. However, graduate unemployment that existed during the 1998 currency crisis still persists until today as many companies were forced to merge and lay off workers.It has been reported that the number of unemployed graduates had increased from 45,000 in 2000 to 85,000 in 2005 (Sim, 2006). What is the main cause of the increasing rate of graduate unemployment in Malaysia? A. Limited job opportunities due to economic instability. B. Currency crisis in 1998 reduced salary of many jobs. C. Lack of efforts by the gover nment to improve the economy. D. The impact of the global economic recession in the mid-1980s. Excerpt 2 Students are required to take English exam as a compulsory requirement for entrance to public university.MUET (Malaysian undergraduate English Test) result for new entry student for the 2007/8 intake at one public university which can be considered as a typical sample for other public universities indicated that most students scored below the satisfactory level in English competency. From the population of 2916 new students’ intake at this public university, about 72. 7% has a score of Bands 1, 2 and 3. This is because all they need is to get the MUET certificate regardless of their Bands (Mohini, 2008). Why did many students still score below the satisfactory level though MUET is a compulsory entrance requirement?A. Students lack initiatives to improve their English. B. English is often taken for granted since it is accepted as unimportant. C. Majority of the programmes a t university does not have a minimum Band requirement. D. A high MUET band is not a necessity for university entrance. Excerpt 3 It is all too apparent in this study that many students, often very good students, suffer needlessly when doing group assignments. While some academics might claim that it is good to let students face problems arising from group work, it is pointless having them to face problems that they will not see in the workplace.Simply making students do assignments together is not preparing them for team work in industry. It is not simulating â€Å"real life in industry†. It causes stress to many students and gives them grades they do not deserve, especially when the better ones are penalized for the lack of efforts by others (Ford & Maurice, 2011). Why do good students suffer from doing group assignments? A. Group assignments reduce lecturers’ marking load. B. Group assignments do not relate to their future work life. C. Group assignments’ grad es do not reflect their actual ability.D. Group assignments help them manage problems when working together. ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 51 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING D. Reading Practice Task 3 Read the passage below and choose the best answers (A, B, C or D) for the questions that follow Break Your Bad Habits By Amy Novotney As an undergraduate student, you probably got A's despite less-than-ideal study habits: reading in front of the television, staying up all night cramming, checking e-mail every 10 minutes while working on a paper.These behaviors may have cut it in college, but graduate school calls for a better set of strategies, says University of Virginia psychology professor Daniel Willingham, PhD. According to psychology faculty and other experts, here are the top five habits that hold graduate students back: 1. Highlighting. Dog-earing pages and highlighting journal article passages are popular but worthless exercises wh en it comes to helping you remember information later on, Willingham says. That's because they don't require students to engage with the material.Instead, he suggests students find a more active strategy that forces them to think about the meaning of what they're reading. This might be something as simple as taking notes on important points, outlining how journal articles fit together or spending a moment after reading a paragraph to reflect on how it fits into a piece's bigger picture. In a study by Pintrich and De Groot (1990), students who asked themselves â€Å"why? † at the end of each sentence while reading a factual passage about a university were significantly more likely to remember important points than students who were simply told to read the passage and remember it. . Cramming for exams. When you pull an all-nighter, your memories of the concepts you’re studying becomes associated with a particular time and environment, making them harder to retrieve, says Willingham. That's bad news for crammers, as most tests aren't handed out at 2 a. m. There are several reasons why distributing your studying throughout the semester is more long-lasting. One is that your brain doesn't make that association because the knowledge is cued and retrieved at many different points over time.Willingham's claims are backed up by Webb and Sheeran’s (2006) meta-analysis of 317 experiments examining the spacing of student study periods. The authors found that when participants studied at two different points in time, they recalled a greater percentage of the material than when the same amount of study time was nearly uninterrupted. 5 10 15 20 25 30 ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 52 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 3. Unhealthy eating. With both time and money in short supply, graduate students often skip lunch when rushing to class or hit the vending machine for a late-night snack.Yet the high-fat, empty-calo rie foods they often choose don't provide the energy needed to work effectively, and can also take a toll on the brain. A study by Manos (1999) linked memory loss to a diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol. And a 2008 meta-analysis of 160 studies examining food's effect on the brain showed that omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in salmon, walnuts and kiwi fruit, improve learning and memory (Hillman & Erickson, 1999). 4. Multitasking. Many students pride themselves on their ability to attend to several tasks at once, but multitasking undermines efficiency, according to a study by Miller (2006).It takes extra time to shift mental gears every time you switch tasks—that means when you sit down to work, close your e-mail program so it doesn't distract you. â€Å"If you ask any graduate student what they do first when they sit down to study, 99 percent say they check their e-mail, and then the next thing you know, an hour has gone by,† Miller says. When you're studyi ng, you may even need to disable your Internet connection and turn off your cell phone, she says. 5. Assuming you remember what you've read.According to a Pickering and Ferreira’s (2006) meta-analysis of 30 years of research, we aren't very good at assessing how well we understand something. You may feel well-versed in the social psychology theories you learned in class after reading over your notes several times, but familiarity doesn't mean you'll be able to recall the material for a test, Willingham says. To gauge whether you've studied enough, explain the material to someone else or create a test for yourself, he says. â€Å"Quizzing one another is the No. 1 thing I recommend to students,† Willingham says. It's a much more realistic assessment of what you know because it forces you to get inside the professor's head and think about what they are likely to ask about the material. † (adapted from Novotney, 2009) 35 40 45 50 55 60 For Questions 1-5, choose a wor d/phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined word as used in the text. 1. Dog-earing pages †¦ (line 9) A. m a r kin g wit h book m a r ks B. dr a win g pict u r es on pages C. foldin g t h e cor n er s of pa ges D. wr it in g down n ot es on t h e side 2. †¦ making them harder to retrieve (line 24) A. or ga n ise B. pr ocess C. r eca ll D. t im u la t e ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 53 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 3. †¦ can also take a toll on the brain (line 38) A. ch a r ge B. disast er C. ba d effect D. lou d r in gin g 4. It takes extra time to shift mental gears †¦ (line 45) A. speed up wor k B. slow down t h inkin g C. t h in k a t a n a lyt ica l level D. ch a n ge focu s of concen t r a t ion 5. You may feel well-versed in †¦ (line 54) A. com pet en t B. en t h u siast ic C. h a bit u a l D. r em em ber For Questions 6-15, choose the most appropriate answers based on your reading. . Which of t he following is an ideal study habit for undergraduate students? A. Studying while watching television. B. Studying into the wee hours of the morning. C. Interacting in emails while doing an assignment. D. Searching the internet for information on assignments. 7. Which sentence contains the main idea for the paragraph on highlighting? A. Dog-earing pages and highlighting journal article passages are popular but worthless exercises when it comes to helping you remember information later on, Willingham says B. That's because they don't require students to engage with the material. C.Instead, he suggests students find a more active strategy that forces them to think about the meaning of what they're reading D. This might be something as simple as taking notes on important points, outlining how journal articles fit together or spending a moment after reading a paragraph to reflect on how it fits into a piece's bigger picture. 8. According to the paragraph 2, why are crammers unable to r emember what they studied the night before? A. Memory is better at night but tests are usually not conducted at night. B. People usually lose their concentration if they study in one long sitting. C.What is studied is stored in the memory as a single episode and is not easily recalled. D. The amount of time spent studying in one night is less than that for a whole semester. ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 54 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 9. Why do students end up with unhealthy eating habits that affect their memory and learning? A. Food stalls are not open at night. B. They are busy and short of money. C. High-fat, empty-calorie food is tasty. D. They have lectures during lunch hour. 10. What food should students avoid if they want to improve their memory and learning?A. Fish. B. Fries. C. Fruits. D. Nuts. 11. What is the main idea for the paragraph on multitasking? A. Multitasking is an ability to be proud of. B. Multitasking is not an efficient way to study. C. Checking email should not be part of multitasking. D. Internet connection is a distractor when multitasking. 12. What is the author not saying in paragraph on multitasking? A. Students should do the less mentally taxing tasks first. B. It is better to finish one task first before starting another. C. Email, internet connection and cell phones are distractive. D. To save time, graduate students should not check their email. 3. Why do students often assume they remember what they have read? A. They are familiar with it. B. They have copied the notes. C. They have attended the lecture. D. They can explain it to someone. 14. According to Willingham, which is the best way to assess how well we understand something? A. See whether we can recall the information in the lecture. B. Find out whether we can do the test given by the lecturer. C. Ask each other questions on the information in the lecture. D. Set a test on the lecture and answer the questions ourselves . 15. Which text? A. B. C. D. f the following less-than-ideal study habits is not an idea found in the Eating at irregular hours. Doing last-minute studying. Reading articles superficially. Doing many things at one time. ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 55 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING Task 4 Read the passage below and choose the best answers (A, B, C or D) for the questions that follow. The Record-breaking Book 1 The biggest house of cards, the longest tongue, and of course, the tallest man: these are among the thousands of records logged in the famous Guinness Book of Records.Created in 1955 after a debate concerning Europe's fastest game bird, what began as a marketing tool sold to pub landlords to promote Guinness, an Irish drink, became one of the bestselling copyright titles of all time. In time, the book have sold 120 million copies in over 100 countries, quite a leap from its humble beginnings. 2 In its early years, the book aims to satisfy man's curiosity about the natural world around him. Its two principal fact finders, twins Norris and Ross McWhirter, travelled the globe to collect facts.It was their task to find and document aspects of life that can be sensed or observed, things that can be quantified or measured. But not just any things. They were only interested in superlatives: the biggest and the best. It was during this period that some of the hallmark Guinness Records were documented, answering such questions as â€Å"What is the brightest star? † and â€Å"What is the biggest spider? † 3 Once aware of the public's thirst for such knowledge, the book's authors began to branch out to cover little-known facts. They started documenting human achievements as well.A forerunner for reality television, the Guinness Book gave people a chance to become famous for accomplishing extraordinary and often pointless tasks. Records were set in 1955 for consuming 24 raw eggs in 14 minutes and in 1981 for the fastest solving of a Rubik's Cube (which took a mere 38 seconds). In 1979, a man yodelled non-stop for ten and a quarter hours. 4 In its latest form, the book has found a new home on the internet. No longer restricted to the physical paper, the Guinness World Records website contains seemingly infinite facts concerning such topics as the most powerful combustion engine, or the world's longest train.More and more facts and achievements are added. While there is no denying that each of these facts has its individual attraction, the increasing number of strange achievements represents an important change from the education-oriented facts of earlier editions. It seems Guinness World Records has changed its focus to cater to the audience that wants entertainment more than educational values. 5 Originating as a simple bar book, the Guinness Book of Records has changed over decades to provide insight into the full variety of modern life.Although one may be more likely to learn abo ut the widest human mouth than the highest number of casualties in a Civil War, the Guinness World Records website offers a peek into the future of fact-finding and record-documenting. (adapted from Michael & Timothy, 2012) ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 56 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 1. What caused the introduction of Guinness Book of Records in 1955? A. The search for bestselling titles. B. The debate by several pub landlords. C. The marketing tool to promote Guinness. D. The arguments on the Europe's fastest game bird.What was the main purpose of Guinness Book of Records in its early years? A. To document various life happenings B. To let the fact finders do the superlatives. C. To fulfil the curiosity within each human being. D. To travel around the world and find unbelievable facts. As used in paragraph 2, which is the best definition for â€Å"principal†? A. main B. belief C. senior D. original How did the Guinness Book r eality television show give people a chance to become famous? A. By accomplishing a task within a given time. B. By showing off their eating and singing habits. C. By presenting their skills in front of the audience. D.By performing strange and usually pointless tasks. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the primary benefit of making Guinness World Records available online? A. It is more environmental friendly. B. It helps to save the cost of printing the book. C. The book can be sold to a larger number of readers. D. More facts can be added without the restriction of the paper. According to the author, the major difference between older editions of the Guinness Book of Records and the new Guinness World Records website involves A. a move from fact-finding to the recording of achievements B. a change in focus from educational to entertaining material C. departure from book sales being limited to local pubs and bars D. an end to the use of educational facts as a means to promote Guinness Why does Gu inness World Records include more strange achievements? A. It adds entertainment values to the records. B. It allows more people to achieve the impossible. C. More people were capable of doing weird things. D. The education-oriented facts are very hard to find. 6. 7. ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 57 CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE STUDIES, UNIMAS PBI 1032: ACADEMIC READING AND WRITING 8. As used in paragraph 4, which is the best definition for â€Å"infinite†?A. certain B. excellent C. unlimited D. very little Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. The reality television show for Guinness Book of Records was a failure. B. The title for the Guinness Book of Records was derived from an Irish bird. C. Norris and Ross McWhirter were the first fact-finders for Guinness Book of Records. D. Changes to Guinness Book of Records are expected in the future since many people dislike reading silly records. What does the author imply by â€Å"Guinness World Records website offers a peek int o the future of fact-finding and record-documenting† (paragraph 5)?A. Guinness World Records website will continue to be more entertainmentbased. B. Finding facts on various records to fit into the website would be harder in the future. C. The need for Guinness World Records website to be maintained for future generations. D. The Guinness World Records website may not be visited in the future since it has excluded educational facts. 9. 10. IMPORTANT NOTE: In the final exam, the reading section will only include multiple-choice questions (MCQ) ARW-SEM2-2013-LU2-READING-SKILLS 58

Friday, January 10, 2020

Coca Cola and Pepsi Essay

Pepsi Cola and Coca Cola has been in the cola wars for centuries now. They had strategies to stay in the business competitively; both companies did their best to stay up by making contracts with celebrities, making banners and posters, TV commercials. Pepsi Cola and Coca Cola has the same core benefit for their products, which is to quench the thirst of their consumers as well as selling a non-alcoholic soft drink. Core benefit is the fundamental need or want that consumers satisfy by consuming the product or service. The Coca Cola products are constantly produced in a red background with Coca Cola writing. Conversely, Pepsi products are packaged with their blue writing. Brand knowledge is important for the health of the company. The Coca Cola brand was worth $79 billion in the year 2013 in comparison to Pepsi Cola brand, which was only $17 million worth. A consumer from a different country can identify a Coca Cola product, even though it’s in a foreign language and they may s till recognize the product immediately. Coca Cola is much more widely available than Pepsi. Coca Cola creates a sort of convenience for consumers for being widely available thus getting the loyalty of the consumers. There is a higher demand for Coca Cola than Pepsi thus restaurants are more favorable towards Coca Cola. For example, McDonalds is providing Coca Cola, but KFC and Hardees provide Pepsi. Pepsi has always had the younger generation in mind. Their advertising and marketing strategies are fixed to target teens aged 14 or even younger with a fun and most often interlaced with music. This is evident over the years as Pepsi had musical celebrities like Michael Jackson, Britney Spears and now Beyonce. Coca Cola also targets diversifying their audience and taking geographical aspects in high consideration as they target the world filled with different cultures. The ingredients of these products also can be differentiated as Pepsi has slightly more sugar, caffeine and calories while Coca Cola has slightly more sodium. Coca Cola is a much fizzier drink due to its high percentage of carbonation in comparison to Pepsi. In Kazakhstani market Coca Cola is preferred more than Pepsi. As it was already mentioned, everyone can find Coca Cola everywhere, even far from populated cities. Also, Coca Cola is open to present the process of its creation.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Microsoft Analysis - 1396 Words

ABSTRACT: This assignment tries to assess the current market status of Microsoft Corporation. As well this assignment will try to assess its current market position as per its business units, functionality, and also its different operations sectors as well its strategies for its rivals. Also this assignment will do financial comparative analysis study and benchmarking with nearest rivals like apple Inc., Google Corporation and Oracle Inc. and will applied to discover key factors for proposed area of developments and further improvements. Here the analysis tools like Porter 8-force analysis, PESTEL-analysis will be applied and the expected outcomes of analysis and benchmarking with nearest rivals will be incorporated in an analysis of†¦show more content†¦The growth is presented in percentage and the net income as well net revenue is presented in US $BILLION.RAVENUE CHARTINTERPRETATION: This column chart presents net revenue and net income in US$ BILLION and net growth in percentage. A lso the head count of company total employees.(SOURCE MICROSOFT ANNUAL REPORT JULY 2012) | It has total revenue of $ 73.72 billion and the operative income of $ 21.76 billion as well the net income is $16.97 billion and the company has total assets of $121.2 billion. Also it has more than 90000 employees. (Microsoft 2012) ROI OF MICROSOFT CORPORTION: ROI | PAYBACK PERIOD | TOTAL BENIFIT | TOTAL COSTS | NET PRESENT VALUE | 243% | 4.1 month | US$ 665086 | US$ 193686 | US$665086 | | INTERPRETATION:This table presents the ROI of the MICROSOFT CORPORATION in percentage and it’s payback period, total costs as well net present value in US$. | ABOUT RIVALS: Microsoft has main three rivals comparatively: 1. Apple Inc.: Apple Inc. (NASDAQ formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Personal Statement Of Purpose For A Student s Office Room

Statement of Purpose It was September 2011. I was waiting outside our department’s office room to collect the result of my first UG term final. When I received my grade sheet, I was shocked to see a very poor GPA and found out that my position in the class was 29th out of 32. It tore me apart and I was engulfed by rumors of the impact of a bad result in the future career. On the next day, I shared my unexpected result and depression with one of my favorite teachers, but she congratulated me. I was flummoxed. Then she explained herself by mentioning a quote from Thomas A. Edison’s life event to invent the electric light bulb-â€Å"I have not failed. I ve just found 10,000 ways that won t work†. This message inspired me greatly and I promised myself that I will not give up. In the next term, I left no stone unturned to do better in the exam and the result of the second term did not disappoint me. My GPA rose from 3.39 to 3.91 and I stood first in my class of that term. Finally, I ended my UG life being 2nd among all. What I learned from my first term result of UG studies, was more important than only a good result. It was the confidence and belief that â€Å"I can†. In my childhood, my father was an employee at â€Å"Iram Motors Ltd.†, a distributor of Mercedes-Benz in Bangladesh. I fell in love with various models of cars by going through the attractive magazines of this automobile company brought home by my father. Later in 2002, the company was shut down and my father lost his job. IShow MoreRelatedSample Resume : New Employee Orientation Agenda1068 Words   |  5 Pagesemployees 9:00am Welcome to the school Staff room Principal, HR manager and department heads 9:45am Meeting with principal †¢ Topic: Mission statement †¢ Objective-to highlight Southwood school governing principles Principal’s office Principal and HR manager 10:30am Meeting with Human Resource manager †¢ Topic: Overview of HR management department and key roles. †¢ Objective-to familiarize new employees with Southwood services and resources related to employment Office 201 Principal and HR manager 11:55amRead MoreInner Office Memo - Security Protocols1254 Words   |  6 PagesINNER-OFFICE MEMO To: Supervising Attorney From: Pat Paralegal ID: PA230-02-08-A Student: Kelly Combs Re: Security Protocols in the Law Office Date: 12-19-2011 ______________________________________________________________________________ I have researched your questions with regard to ethical compliance according to the ABA Model Rules on what is permissible to include in the firm website. 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The hospital is located in north central Baltimore city area and was founded in 1854 by the â€Å"Union Protestant Infirmary† to â€Å"provide shelter and medical care toRead MoreCyber Bullying : A Vital Concern Of Many Families And Schools Across The World1331 Words   |  6 Pagesnot only from his private moment being made public but for being made of fun for his sexuality. It started with a Twitter message on Sept. 19: â€Å"Roommate asked for the room till midnight. I went into Molly’s room and turned on my webcam. I saw him making out with a dude. Yay† said Dharun Ravi. The Middlesex County prosecutor’s office said Mr. Clementi’s roommate, Dharun Ravi, 18, of Plainsboro, N.J., and another classmate, Molly Wei, 18, of Princeton Junction, N.J., had each been charged with two countsRead MoreTechnology And Its Impact On The Classroom1571 Words   |  7 Pagesinvolving these technologies into the classroom can ultimately improve student engagement in their learning environments. This research paper will focus on both sides of the argument and ultimately seek to determine if there is a best practice regarding technological being put into schools. â€Æ' In September of 2010, a controversy was created by Dalton McGuinty when he suggested that teachers should consider allowing students to use their smart-phones in classrooms. Much of the reactions thatRead MoreThe Violation Of The Fourth Amendment3158 Words   |  13 Pagesthis pertains to those citizens who are students, whether it be in the primary, secondary, or post-secondary setting, the question that unveils itself is whether or not students are entitled to their constitutional rights, in this case, the fourth amendment’s rights, while in the school environment. Such actions that may violate a student’s constitutional rights as a citizen would be an administrator or school law enforcement searching a student or their personal belongings for unjustified reasons whileRead MoreLearning Statistics And Its Impact On Education Essay1687 Words   |  7 PagesTeaching statement Mohamad S. Hasan I have been privileged to teach several statistics courses. It is a very pleasant experience to teach statistics because it gives me an opportunity to deliver expertise and knowledge about statistics from a different perspective. It encourages demonstrating the actual reasoning behind sophisticated statistical tools and explaining the effects of statistics and its applications to society. My philosophy is to teach statistical methodologies so that students can useRead MoreBenefits Of Being A Nurse1503 Words   |  7 Pagesemployment. A LPN license is achievable with proper instruction in one year on a full-time basis and can be concluded in two years if it is more convenient for a student to participate in classes part-time. Upon graduation there is an eighteen month bridge program that can help attain the classes necessary to transfer into a Registered Nurse. R.N.’s must complete prerequisites that permit entrance into the program before receiving a two year Associates of Ap plied Science degree, but after completion they

Monday, December 16, 2019

America, The Land of Broken Dreams The Controversial...

America is a nation that was built on the concepts of equality, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These fundamental concepts have influenced amalgams of immigrants from across the world to travel to America in the hopes and search for a better life away from the hardships faced in their homeland. With the fusion of different cultures and ideas, immigrants have helped give birth to a powerful, unified global nation that inspires others to fight for their dreams and aspirations. The immigration reform is one of those dreams that undocumented Americans are fighting for today. One particular dream within the immigration reform movement is the Development, Relief and Education of Alien Minors Act, in other words, the DREAM Act. This is the Act that undocumented students across the United States dream of turning into a reality, but so far that dream is nothing but a blur. The passage of the DREAM Act will help strengthen the US economy in the future, and provide undocumented students t he opportunity to pursue their definition of the American dream by continuing their education and careers after high school. Over the years, the DREAM Act has placed a suspenseful toll in the lives of undocumented high school immigrants across the United States. Each year, approximately 65,000 students from high schools, many whom are at the top of their class, are unable to go to college, join the military, work or pursue their dreams because of their illegal status (The DREAM Act). These youngShow MoreRelatedThe American Dream Analysis827 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Dream is another controversial element of American life whose validity was well-debated by writers of the era. This was an ideal that many immigrants from the Old World strived to achieve, hoping that their penniless fortunes would quickly change for the better. One author, William Bryant Cullen, emphasized how America is a refuge for â€Å"Earth’s trodden down and opprest† peoples, including the â€Å"hunted head† and the â€Å"starved laborer.† This phrase from the patriotic poem indicates that theRead Mor eImmigration Policy Of The United States And Its Effects On Hispanic Immigrants1541 Words   |  7 Pageswhom originate from Latin America ( Largely driven by the prospect of the â€Å"American Dream,† the Latino immigration movement began in the 1840s and has fluctuated with new policies, including the bracero program, an oppressive operation for temporary migrant workers, during World War II, and the Immigration Act of 1965, which created the first immigration limit for the Western Hemisphere (Gutià ©rrez, Ewing). 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Americans have a certain way about them that makes them different from any other people on earth. All Americans are heroes in some way, but a select few

Sunday, December 8, 2019

SWOT Analysis about Levi Strauss Integrated Marketing Communications

Question: Describe about the SWOT analysis of the product, Oppurtunity and Threats of Levi Strauss? Answer: Executive Summary: The report mainly channelizes with an introduction of the topic. The company profile will clear the brand image and products of the company, its industry repute and reputation in the market. A SWOT analysis has further done to understand the present market scene and the threats and opportunities that the company is facing right now in the market. The various threats and opportunities will tell the road map to growth as the market already has many players with same type of clothes and accessories. The objectives for development in market growth, profit maximisation and sales volume is discussed. The study will give us an intense understanding of the company and its various aspects. Introduction: Integrated marketing communication is "The coordination of various approaches to achieve the objectives of amarketing campaign with an effective use of various promotional activities that are intended with the aim to coordinate which each other.The integrated marketing communication identifies various strategic roles of different communication paths that reach a combined effort to marketing. It is an activity of applying consistent brand messaging with both non-traditional and traditional marketing channels. The study finds out the goals which points at maximising sales volume, market share, and profit in the market. The situation of the market which is currently prevailing, is also analysed in the study. The factors like distribution, product market, and competition are also analysed. SWOT analysis is taken up in the study to understand the on -going market scene. The market strategies of 4p`s place, price, promotion and people have been discussed elaborately. Levi Strauss is the pr oduct is going to be discussed here. Company Profile: Levi Strauss is an American apparel company well known for its denim wears. Founded in the year 1853, it is divided amongst three divisions. These divisions are situated in Europe, the Middle East and Singapore. 10,500 employees work for the company presently. The strategies of the company involve television advertisements featuring old music records. The brand image of the product is very well in the market. The level of cult customers of the products is too high. The product is very popular amongst that segment of the market, which believes in fashion and looking trendy. Even the showrooms of Levi Strauss are trendy and the ambience attracts the youngsters. Intensive study is done to get an insight of the market. A marketing plan will be made out of the factors that would come out during the study. SWOT analysis of the product: Levi Strauss stretches its market globally, where there are many other competitors selling the same line of products. In such a stiff market the survival is hard. In order to remain in the market, new strategies of marketing should be initiated. The study of internal and external forces can determine the weaknesses and strengths of the company (Aldridge, 2005). Levi Strauss has its market in accessories and clothing of the retail area. With the tagline of quality never goes out of style the company claims to sell the oldest jeans with the best styles and designs. Middle and upper segment are its target customers. To increase the market it has to target the lower segment too. Strengths: 1. The company owns 60 of it pants in the United States of America and 25 plant throughout the world. The demand for the products is too high in the international market (Etzel, Walker and Stanton, 2007).2. Huge Market share: Ruling in the industry since 1853 the company has a very commendable knowledge of the market. This long existence must have reasons, which shows its efficiency. The company is aware of all the marketing strategies that the competitor can play against it.3. The channels of distribution: The company has a huge distribution channel that makes the product available whole round the globe. Having such huge manufacturing plants the company has to have a very efficient sales and trade promotions to exist in the market.4. It has 470 self owned stores in the world with 16000 plus employees. Retaining these employees is not an easy task. It is also matter of high reputation. The growth of the company is depended on this employees, this shows the highly efficient human reso urces management of the company. The turnover ratio of the employee is also low (Breward, 2003). 5. Retro popular songs: The most attractive thing about its advertisement is the Retro songs that it features in the videos. The stylish and trendy looks of the advertisements make the products very desirable. Weakness: 1. The pressures that it faces from the market makes it lag behind sometimes in its strategies. In general, the company believes in attacking its competitors but if the competitors attack, it has to be ready with the defence plan.2. When there exists competitor`s with almost same line of products, the scope to grow well stagnates. The cave to success becomes narrow. The company should not dwell in a stagnate market. There are very few factors, which would help make the difference. One of those factors is Quality and this factor is very important too. Integrated marketing communication is "The coordination of various approaches to achieve the objectives of amarketing campaign with an effective use of various promotional activities that are intended with the aim to coordinate which each other.The integrated marketing communication identifies various strategic roles of different communication paths that reach a combined effort to marketing. It is an activity of applying consistent brand messaging with both traditional and non-traditional marketing channels. Oppurtunity: 1. international market with less manufacturing cost: Due to some countries having cheap labours, the production cost may tend to low, low cost of land etc Levi`s Strauss gets this low production benefit since when it have 25 manufacturing plants across the globe (Groom, 2012). Lower rates of Products at home market are same sold out always by this manufacturing plant. As an opportunity the number of this kind of plants need to be increased to give a tough competition in the market and to beat others (Lake, 2015).2. Growth of market of casual wear: As trend has changed the way of wearing the casuals to large number of people, which become the boon for this type of company. This is the very moment where Levi Strauss can expand its market and the jeans industry can do the business well, due to having a big opportunity. This is when, the company is having a chance to maximise its production and marketing. Here the idea is to warm up with new styles and designs along with different price ranges to let the other classes of the society become Levi Strauss`s delighted customers. To attract more customers, the company needs to look after whether it has much number of varieties and for this there should not have any compromise when quality is concerned(Jones, 2002).3. Acceptance across the world market: The Company is having products and accessories which primarily produced to be worn by western people since few years but now a day the world has changed, people across the globe has accepted the western wears, they wear those garments, with great joy and style. Levi Strauss now just needs to look for more markets to sell out its products (Kerin, Hartley Rudelius, 2011). Threats: 1. Trends with Rapid changes: Todays world is very dynamic with the changing trend is which gives less time for everything. Less time to come up with newly planned designs, less ti, less time for the product manufacturing, for marketing also. This scarcity of time leads production to the loss, wastage of capital used for marketing.2. Lack of property rights: It is a fact that, some countries are manufactures who are manufacturing jeans in the name of Levi Strauss and selling them with a very less price at market. The customer is not having knowledge enough to detect the quality to buy and they got it at a low price (Kerin, Hartley Rudelius, 2013). As this is a common fact and it has ruined the customer count to the company. The company is unable to stop this because, as it happens in some other country (Kerin, Hartley Rudelius, 2011).3. Product substitution and Increase of competition: As previously mentioned, the company is facing many challenges in the market across the globe bec ause of its competitors and their good image in the market (Kotler Keller, 2009). The market is bounded as the competitors hold same accessories and products same as Levi Strauss. The company needs to look into various span of actions before launching its products work wide (Kotler Armstrong, 2012). Sometimes there are big chances to face big failures. Competitors: There are four main competitors of Levi Strauss to compete with: Wrangler Lee Tom Hilfiger Spykar Objectives to attain better sales: 1. The company can increase its promotional activities with lots of advertisements in fashion magazines. 2. The company should achieve sales more than targeted by more offers to the customers.3. Conversion rate of the customers can be done by converting the competitors customers.4. The distribution channel of the company should be increased by attractive sales and trade promotions.5. The company can set up more manufacturing plant in those countries where the cost of manufacturing is less (Mc Daniel, 2009). 6. The enhancement of frequency of advertisements can be done in television.7. The company targets mainly the middle and upper segment of the society. They should also come up with products which would also suits the lower segments to. Low prices can be offered for that segment. This would help the company to acquire another section of the society. Objectives to attain better market share: New showrooms can be opened where there the company has not reached yet. Offering New designs in the market. Distribution channel should be increased. Objectives on maximization of profit: 1. The principles of demand should be met by the entire product to which they have to maintain the similar status of good will in the market.2. The company must have location expansion physically3. Whenever there will be requirement the organization will be able to do restructuring internally.4. To improve the Chanel by maintaining good relation with the Vendors.5. To pave way to innovations by following the tendency (Muller, Alt Michelis, 2011)/6. To check on the updates about the competitors.7. To implement and drive promotional plannings in order to retain and attract new customers (Pride Ferrell, 2010)8. To advertise the product in a global forum by technological advancement.9. The accessible customers should have the knowledge about the sale.10. For purposes to be served later an up to date customer database must be developed.11. It is very much necessary to execute a management on customer relationship in this Organization (Tracy,2014)12. In the recent market introduction of new products must be done.13. Maximizing profit and minimizing cost must be supported by not wasting resources and application of sufficient resources.14. When a product is popular; it becomes clear that the product has reached the people hence brand awareness must be emphasized by Levi Strauss (Wilson, 2011) Marketing Strategies Applying new strategies a company, the marketing strategy aims to increase its profit and sales. There are certain implemented long-term plans that help in attaining huge goal. The adopted strategies of a company, follows instructions, which are positive, well-defined and profound. This strategy helps to determine the goal-achieving capability of a company. There are two types of marketing strategy, they are interactive and Dynamic. They can be partly unplanned and partly planned. Long-term tools such as Customer lifetime value models can be very impactful helping to rouse the consequences of strategy on attainment. In order to gain the market share Levi Strauss can follow various strategies. Keeping in mind the 4ps of marketing mix the strategies must be made. They are Price, Product, promotion and place. Product : it is very much necessary to put the right product at its respective place and in a proper time. A company like Levi Strauss must possess the quality to make its product on hand in all units. One of the most popular outfit produced by Levi Strauss is Jeans, if the variety of jeans is available with various choices then the market be likely to explode. Place: it is considered to be an important feature which helps in determining the appropriate distribution channel. It ensures whether the customers are receiving the product in the required place or not. If in the suitable geographic location, the outlets are not available then it becomes hard to make sure that the distributional channel is no correct . It clarifies the appropriate distributional channel. The accessibility of Levi Strauss outlet is proper. In every Shopping mall, small franchising outlets are also present. Yet there are markets where exploration is needed where the company can flourish its units for selling their products. Even after venturing the international market Levi Strauss focuses on markets that are yet to be explored (Brennan, Canning McDowell, 2007). Price: in case of every products price remains an important factor. It explains the worth that a customer makes of a item. The sustainability of a company somehow depends on price in the market. If the quality of the product and the price of the product does not matches then there are possibilities of the product be exceeded by its competitor and the existence of the product in the market to demolish. The cost of production, the added advantage of the product and the competitors price, are the prime factors that help in deciding the cost of a product. In places where Levis Strauss is yet to be reached, the company must initiate plans to reach. Promotion: Marketing the manufactured goods in front of the consumer is called Promotion. Along with helping at selling the product, it also helps in solving the question on moving into the right direction for the company. It also helps to see whether the target customers is receiving what exactly the communicating message conveys. Levi Strauss is popular for its promotions and advertisements. Hence a little more stress must be given to those areas where the customers are not aware about Levi Strauss. Conclusion: The report depicts the incorporated marketing communication and its influence on Competitiveness in Levi Strauss. The study is accurately and thoroughly done on the strategies that should be applied by the company. A SWOT analysis is done keeping the marketing mix that helped in analyzing the weakness, opportunities, strength and threats of the company. The scope of the expansion of the company is high n internal and external context. Though the market structure seems to be very steep yet there is no way that the scope of rising for Levi Strauss will fade away. References: Aldridge, A. (2005).The market. Cambridge: Polity. Baines, P., Fill, C. and Page, K. (2008).Marketing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Breward, C. (2003).Fashion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Elliott, G., Rundle-Thiele, S. and Waller, D. (2012).Marketing. Milton, Qld.: John Wiley and Sons Australia. Etzel, M., Walker, B. and Stanton, W. (2007).Marketing. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Groom, G. (2012).Impressionism, fashion, modernity. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago. insider, b. (2015). . Jones, R. (2002).The apparel industry. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Kerin, R., Hartley, S. and Rudelius, W. (2013).Marketing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2012).Principles of marketing. Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall. Kotler, P. and Keller, K. (2009).Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. Lake, L. (2015).Beginner's Guide to Integrated Marketing Communication. [online] Money. Available at: [Accessed 11 Feb. 2015]. Lamb, C., Hair, J. and McDaniel, C. (2009).Marketing. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning. Muller, J., Alt, F. and Michelis, D. (2011).Pervasive advertising. London: Springer. Potter, N. (2012).The library marketing toolkit. London: Facet Publishing. Pride, W. and Ferrell, O. (2010).Marketing. Australia: South Western Cengage Learning. Tracy, B. (2014).Marketing. New York: AMACOM. Wilson, R. (2011).Fashion industry. New York, NY: Rosen Central. Brennan, R., Canning, L., McDowell, R. (2007).Business-to-business marketing. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur free essay sample

Koch worked on anthrax and tuberculosis (TB) and developed work of Louis Pasteur. Koch first investigated Anthrax (that affected herds of farm animals and farmers. ) In 1868 Davaine had proved that a healthy animal that did not have anthrax could get the disease if it was injected with blood containing Anthrax. Koch developed this work further. Koch found out that Anthrax microbes produced spores that lived for a long time after an animal had died and these spores could then develop into the Anthrax germ and could infect other animals. After this Koch moved on to Germs. In 1878 he identified the germ that cause blood poisoning and septicaemia and developed new techniques to carry out experiments, and devises a method of proving which germ caused an infection. In 1881 he began to work on TB and found the germ in 1882. Koch finally lay to rest belief that ‘bad air’ caused disease. Koch developed right methods to identify germs. We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Louis Pasteur (1882) A producer of vinegar from beet juice requested Pasteur’s help in determining why the product sometimes spoiled. Pasteur demonstrated that physical screening or thermal methods destroyed all microorganisms and that when no contamination by living contagion took place, the processes of fermentation or putrefaction did not take place. ‘Pasteurization’ and this prevent or drastically reduce infections in the surgeon’s operating room. Death of Pasteur’s father and two daughters lead him to work even harder. Pasteur conquest Rabies. The rivalry between Koch and Pasteur meant that they both worked harder to find and prove theories before each other. Both Koch and Pasteur are significantly important because if Robert Koch did not come up way of identifying germs then Louis Pasteur would have probably found it more difficult to find the germ theory. Therefore both are significantly important.